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What f aggregate pyrite becomes detremental to concrete

  • Environmental impact of concrete - Wikipedia

    The environmental impact of concrete, its manufacture and applications, are complex.Some effects are harmful; others welcome. Many depend on circumstances. A major component of concrete is cement, which has its own environmental and social impacts and contributes largely to those of concrete.. The cement industry is one of the main producers of carbon dioxide, a potent greenhouse gas.

  • The Advantages of Portland-Limestone Cement Concrete

    Aug 12, 2014· Concrete made with PLC has excellent placing and finishing properties. Some contractors report that PLC concrete finishes and pumps slightly better than OPC concrete, not surprising considering the resulting difference in cementitious particle size distribution. Shrinkage and heat of hydration attributes are similar or even slightly improved.

  • Mitigating Concrete Damage Caused by Engine Exhaust

    2. A high temperature aggregate like an igneous traprock, expanded shale, or expanded slate should be used as coarse aggregatein new concrete mix desig ns. Unlike a concrete mix for a JSF, the fine aggregate can be a natural sand. However, sodium silicate must be applied. This option is intended when new construction is planned. 3.

  • Water-to-Cement Ratio and Aggregate Moisture Corrections

    May 28, 2010· By Adam D. Neuwald. Two of the most commonly specified requirements for concrete used in the manufactured concrete products industry are the design compressive strength (f c) and the maximum water-to-cement ratio (w/c).These two values are inversely related, which means that as the water-to-cement ratio increases, the compressive strength decreases.

  • Pyrrhotite Foundation Damage Due to Composition or

    The aggregate used to produce concrete was an anorthositic gabbro containing various proportions of pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and pentlandite. Quantitative microanalysis on sulphide minerals show that pyrrhotite contains small amount of Ni, Co, Cu and As

  • Evolution of pyrrhotite oxidation in aggregates for concrete

    Rocks containing pyrrhotite bands are sometimes used to produce concrete. These rocks oxidize and produce long-term expansive reactions that damage concrete structures, leading to important


    Apr 17, 2014· In my previous post, I discussed the constituents of good brick earth and their importance. But it is impractical to find brick earth having all the good constituents with the desired proportions. There also exist some harmful ingredients in brick earth, which can cause many defects in the manufactured bricks. Below mentioned are some of []

  • How Coarse Aggregate Affects Mix Design of Concrete?

    🕑 Reading time: 1 minute Coarse aggregate is one of the essential components of concrete and occupies the largest volume in the mix. That is why it greatly affects the concrete mix design. Its properties such as strength, maximum size, shape, and water absorption influence water demand, the quantity of cement and fine aggregate in []

  • Durability and Soundness Pavement Interactive

    Aggregate Durability Index. This test, specified in AASHTO T 210, measures the relative resistance of an aggregate to produce detrimental clay-like fines when subjected to mechanical methods of degradation (AASHTO, 2000b [4]).It is not widely used; its chief use has been by western states to identify weathered basalt containing interstitial montmorillonite, which will not maintain strength

  • Pyrite problem - Common problems

    In the presence of humidity and oxygen, pyrite oxidizes and produces sulphuric acid. This acid reacts with calcium carbonates found in crushed stone and concrete based products. This chemical reaction called sulphation forms gypsum whose crystallization will cause the stone to swell.

  • Internal attack by sulphates in cement pastes and mortars

    Jul 15, 2017· Table 4 Levels of pyrite in relation to the total mass of the aggregate of the base concrete mix proportioning and the cement mass Full size table The studied cement paste was prepared with pozzolanic cement composed in a laboratory with the addition of 20.25% of limestone filler on the weight of the cementitious material (CP V cement + fly ash).

  • Modification of Waste Aggregate PET for Improving the

    The smoother surface texture of plastic aggregates produced concrete with higher slump compared to typical concrete made from natural aggregates. Therefore, as the amount of plastic aggregates increased, the slump increased due to a larger area of smooth surface.

  • Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

    Concrete can deteriorate for a variety of reasons, and concrete damage is often the result of a combination of factors. The following summary discusses potential causes of concrete deterioration and the factors that influence them. CORROSION OF EMBEDDED METALS Fig. 1. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is the most common cause of concrete

  • Water in Concrete For Construction Pros

    Apr 23, 2014· The amount of water in concrete controls many fresh and hardened properties in concrete including workability, compressive strengths, permeability and

  • Code of practice for the concrete batching industry EM1305

    The department acknowledges the work of the Cement, Concrete and Aggregates Australia and the Local Government Association of Queensland in the preparation of this code of practice. 7. About concrete batching Concrete batching consists of producing concrete or concrete products by mixing cement with sand, rock, aggregate or other similar materials.

  • Importance of Water Cement Ratio in Concrete Countertop

    Concrete countertops, sinks, fire features and furniture require vastly higher quality concrete than sidewalks or even foundations, in terms of both performance and aesthetics. One of the keys to the best concrete countertop mix design is to keep the water cement ratio very low. Typically concrete countertop artisans use w/c ratios of about 0.32%.

  • Stress-Strain Behaviour of Concrete

    NDE of Concrete . A typical relationship between stress and strain for normal strength concrete is presented in Figure 1. After an initial linear portion lasting up to about 30 40% of the ultimate load, the curve becomes non-linear, with large strains being registered for small increments of stress.

  • Methods to Reduce Environmental Impact of Concrete

    Lastly, recycled aggregate in general and specifically masonry aggregate possess large porosity compare with natural aggregate. So, for the same workability, water demand to produce fresh concrete is higher compare the case of using natural aggregate and the mechanical properties of hardened concrete are influenced detrimentally.

  • Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

    Fire response of concrete structural members is dependent on the thermal, mechanical, and deformation properties of concrete. These properties vary significantly with temperature and also depend on the composition and characteristics of concrete batch mix as well as heating rate and other environmental conditions. In this chapter, the key characteristics of concrete are outlined.

  • Greigite: a true intermediate on the polysulfide pathway

    Mar 21, 2007· The formation of pyrite is an important geochemical pathway linking the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur and carbon in anoxic sediments [13].Furthermore, chemical reactions involved in pyrite formation have important implications for the fate and mobility of toxic [4, 5] and radioactive [] metals in near-surface environments.Over the past half century, the formation of pyrite

  • Effect of aggregate contamination with pyrite on

    Feb 01, 2021· The fine aggregate was natural sand, from the bottom of the river. Part of the fine aggregate was replaced by pyrite for the contamination of the concrete. The aggregates were tested in accordance with ASTM C128, ASTM C127 and NBR NM 46 and its


    Sep 29, 2012· Typically basalt may contain silicas which in turn may damage a concrete, and so great care is needed when assessing it as an aggregate for concrete. There are two types of basalt flow:

  • Basics of Concrete

    Mar 08, 2016· CONCRETE COMPOSITION: · Water · Portland Cement · Fine Aggregate (sand) - Intermediate Aggregate (3/8" - 1/16" Pea gravel) · Coarse Aggregate (gravel) Water and Portland cement form a paste which coats the aggregates. When the paste hardens, the aggregates are bonded together in a solid mass of hardened concrete.

  • Preservation Brief 15: Preservation of Historic Concrete

    After the concrete is partially cured, the forms are removed and the surface of the concrete is rubbed to remove some of the paste and expose the aggregate to match the original concrete. The concretes durability, or resistance to deterioration, and the materials and methods selected for repair depend on its composition, design, and quality

  • Part C: Assessing the aggressive chemical environment

    for Concrete (ACEC) Class for the site or site locations from Table C1or C2, taking into account: - Design Sulfate Class, - type of site (Natural ground or Brownfield) - water mobility - pH Section C5.2 and Tables C1 and C2 8. Proceed to concrete specification in Parts D, E and F of Special Digest Continue as Stage 3 of Figure A1. 20-11-04

  • Effects of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in

    of 0%, 30%, and 50%. The primary concrete properties studied were compressive strength, split-tensile strength, and deicer scaling resistance. Material variations included four sources of ordinary portland cement and two types of coarse aggregate. Strength properties were studied at room temperature and 40°F mix and curing conditions.

  • Air entrainment and its effects in concrete Aggregate

    Air entrainment is the process where many small air bubbles are distibuted into concrete and become part of the matrix that binds the aggregate together in the hardened concrete. These air bubbles are dispersed throughout the hardened cement paste but are not, by definition, part of

  • Concrete Slab Surface Defects: Causes, Prevention, Repair

    Concrete has a coefficient of thermal expansion and contraction of about 10 x 10-6 per °C (5.5 x 10-6 per °F). Concrete placed dur-ing hot midday temperatures will contract as it cools during the night. A 22°C (40°F) drop in temperature between day and nightnot uncommon in some areaswould cause about

  • Section 6F-1 - Pavement Subbase Design and Construction

    Mar 06, 2020· cracking of concrete. Accumulated water in the subbase is a key contributing factor to subbase instability and pavement distress. Thus it is important to understand how water becomes trapped in the subbase layer. A number of other factors also affect the engineering behavior of aggregates, including fines

  • Concrete Technology in Focus - BASF

    The effect of coarse aggregate on drying shrinkage is twofold. First, the use of a high coarse aggregate content will minimize the total water and paste contents of the concrete mixture and, therefore, drying shrinkage. The effects of aggregate-cement ratio and water-cement ratio on drying shrinkage are iIIustrated in Fig. 3.

  • Alkali Aggregate Reaction in Concrete - Types, Causes, and

    🕑 Reading time: 1 minute Alkali aggregate reactions (AAR) occur when aggregates in concrete react with the alkali hydroxides in concrete producing a hygroscopic gel which, in the presence of moisture, absorbs water and causes expansion and cracking over a period of many years. This alkali-aggregate reaction has two forms, namely: Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and []

  • Thermal Expansion and Contraction

    Of these factors, aggregate type has the greatest influence on the expansion and contraction of concrete. Severe problems develop in massive structures where heat cannot be dissipated. Thermal contraction on the concretes surface without a corresponding change in its interior temperature will cause a thermal differential and potentially lead

  • CONCRETE Optimizing the Use of Fly Ash in Concrete

    concrete grow dramatically with close to 15 million tons used in con-crete, concrete products and grouts in the U.S. in 2005 (ACAA 2006). Historically, fly ash has been used in concrete at levels ranging from 15% to 25% by mass of the cementitious material component.The actual amount used varies widely depending on the application, the properties


    3-4 Initial Parameters for yd3 Concrete Target Cement Content, lbs 658 Target Pozzolan Content, lbs 0 Target Silica Fume Content, lbs 0 Target Water / Cementitious Ratio, by wt. 0.395 Target Cement / Pozzolan Ratio, by wt. Infinity Target % Silica Fume 0.0 100 FA / FA+CA, Target, % by volume 41.7 FA Bulk Sp. Gr. (SSD) 2.632 FA Absorption, % 2.00 CA Bulk Sp. Gr. (SSD) 2.711

  • Rust Coloured Stains on the surface of Exposed Aggregate

    of concrete. This document deals specifically with rust coloured stains created by Ironstone on the surface of Exposed Aggregate Concrete. Ironstone is the common term used to describe unstable aggregate (stone) particles that are rich in iron oxide minerals. These stones are generally dark grey to

  • Pyrite in Aggregate Concrete Construction Magazine

    By Concrete Construction Staff Is the presence of pyrite in an aggregate likely to be injurious to concrete? The presence of an appreciable amount of pyrite (iron disulphide) is undesirable, since this compound readily decomposes into weak products such as iron sulphate and

  • Aggregates for Concrete - Memphis

    Coarse aggregates (Fig. 5-2) consist of one or a com-CHAPTER 5 Aggregates for Concrete bination of gravels or crushed stone with particles predominantly larger than 5 mm (0.2 in.) and generally between 9.5 mm and 37.5 mm (3 8 in. and 11 2 in.). Some natural aggregate deposits, called

  • Factors affecting durability of concrete Aggregate

    Increasing the maximum aggregate size and thereby the aggregate content by 20 per cent of the total volume of the concrete will ensure a substantial decrease in shrinkage. The shrinkage of aggregates themselves may be of considerable importance in determining the shrinkage of concrete; some fine-grained sandstones, slate, basalt, trap rock and

  • Chap05.pdf aggregates for concrete - StuDocu

    Chap03.pdf fly ash, slag, silica, fume, and natural pozzolans Chap06.pdf admixtures for concrete Chap12.pdf curing concrete Other related documents ASCE Citation Guide s08 Shanker ZINB -

  • A comparative investigation of the degradation of pyrite

    This is due to a more oxidizable nature of pyrrhotite than other iron sulfides [2, 6] and that is why it is considered as more detrimental to the durability of concrete and mortar. Study of


    Mar 16, 2018· Even so, aggregate that contains pyrrhotite, an unstable form of iron sulfide (Fe [1-x]S), in quantities that are able to be disruptive to concrete does not appear to be very common. In Connecticut, this aggregate came from a specific quarry and was used in concrete supplied from one producer starting in the late 1980s and continuing until 2015.

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